Chapter 1.section 4


Key names/terms

Christopher Columbus

Queen Isabella

King Ferdinand

Columbian Exchange

Treaty of Tordesillas


Cash Crops



Why did Spain finally agree to sponsor Columbusís voyage



What were the positive and negative effects did Columbusís voyages have?


Chapter 2: sections 1-4


Key names/terms








Pueblo Revolt of 1860



Joint-stock company

Royal colony


House of Burgesses

Indentured servant

Baconís Rebellion

New England Colonies




Mayflower Compact

Great Migration

Religious tolerance

Salem witch trials


Pequot War

King Philipís War

Middle Colonies



Proprietary colony



Southern Colonies




Why did the Spanish encourage settlement in the Southeast, Southwest, and West Coast regions of North America?



Describe the Pueblo Revolt of 1680.



Describe the challenges the English faced in settling Virginia



List the reasonís for Jamestownís near failure.



Where was New France located?



Why did English Pilgrims come to New England?



Why did conflicts develop between Native Americans and the English settlers?



What challenges did the Puritan colonists face and why do you think they succeeded in establishing permanent settlements in New England?



Compare/Contrast the colonies of New France, Plymouth, and Massachusetts Bay.



What events led tocontributed to the outbreak of King Philipís War?



What was the Great Migration?



Why did the British want to take over New Amsterdam?



Describe the groups that settled in Pennsylvania



List some of the reasons people settled in the Middle and Southern colonies.



Why was the colony of Georgia established?




Chapter 3: Sections 1-4


Key names/terms:


Balance of trade


Salutary neglect

Staple crop

Triangular trade






Middle Passage


Stono Rebellion


Great Awakening





what was the British governmentís policy toward the colonies after the rule of James II had ended?



List 4 causes contributing to salutary neglect



List 3 effects of salutary neglect



How were the economies of the Southern, Middle, and New England colonies similar?




How did they differ?



How did the legal status of women differ from their actual importance in colonial society?



How was colonial society structured?



Why did everyone in an average colonial household have to work?



In what ways did the skills that slaves brought from Africa allow the colonies of South Carolina and Georgia to prosper?



Why was the Great Awakening an indirect challenge to the hierarchical social order of the British colonies?



What was the impact of colonial expansion?



Why was western Pennsylvania a likely hot spot for confrontation between the French, English, and Native Americans?



Describe the system of triangular trade used by New Englanders in the 1700ís.



What duties did women perform in colonial America?



Give 4 reasons why slaves in South Carolina and Georgia were able to preserve their cultural traditions.



Why did colonists feel pressured to expand westward in the mid-1700ís?




Chapter 4: sections 1-5


Key names/terms:

French and Indian War

Albany Plan of Union


Prime minister


Treaty of Paris

Benjamin Franklin

Edward Braddock

George Washington

William Pitt

Pontiacís Rebellion

Proclamation of 1763

Stamp Act

Sugar Act

Quartering Act

Declaratory Act

Townshend Acts

Tea Act

Intolerable Acts

Sons of Liberty


Boston Massacre

First Continental Congress

Battles of Lexington & Concord

Revolutionary War

Common Sense

Second Continental Congress

Olive Branch Petition

Declaration of Independence


Natural Rights

Battle of Bunker Hill



Battle of Trenton

Battle of Saratoga

John Burgoyne

Horatio Gates

Baron Friedrich von Steuben

Marquis de Lafayette



Battle of Yorktown

Treaty of Paris 1763

Treaty of Paris 1783




How did the French and Indian War cause the colonists to rethink their relationship with Britain?



What were the major causes and effects of the war?



Why did the colonists protest new British taxes, and in what ways did they protest?



What were the causes and effects of the Stamp Act?



Why did Great Britain change its colonial policies after 1863?



Describe some of the political ideals that influenced the outbreak of the American Revolution



Why was Thomas Paineís pamphlet Common Sense so important?



How did King George IIIís rejection of the Olive Branch Petition influence the Declaration of Independence?



What factors contributed to important American victories at Boston, Trenton, Princeton, Saratoga?



How did the victories at Trenton and Princeton contribute to the victory at Saratoga?



What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Americans at the start of the war?



What were the strengths and weaknesses of the British?



What hardships did American overcome to win the war against Britain?



Which battle of the Revolutionary War do you think was most important and why?



Why was foreign aid important to the Americans during the war?



What was the purpose of the Declaration of Independence?




Chapter 5: Sections 1-5


Key Terms/People:

Articles of Confederation

Legislative Branch

Executive Branch

Judicial Branch





Separation of Powers

Checks & Balances

Electoral College




Bill of Rights


George Washington

James Madison

Alexander Hamilton

Pierre-Charles L'Enfant

Three-Fifths Compromise

The Great Compromise




What kind of government structure did the Articles of Confederation create?


Why did some people support the Articles of Confederation while others opposed it?


What were the effects of Shay's rebellion?


Why was the year 1787 a turning point in American history?


Describe the structure of the government created by the Constitution.


What role did James Madison play at the Constitutional convention?


How did the Federalists win ratification of the Constitution?


Name a supporter of the Bill of Rights and explain his argument for it.


What roles did Jefferson and Hamilton play in Washington's administration?


What precedents did Washington set during his administration?


How did Washington carry out his goal of creating a respected government?


What were the most important features of the Constitution?


Chapter 6, (sections 1,2,3, & 5)


Key Terms/People:


Strict construction


Whiskey Rebellion

XYZ Affair

Alien & Sedition Acts of 1798

Marbury v. Madison

Judicial review

Louisiana Purchase

Jay's Treaty

Missouri Compromise

Battle of New Orleans

Lewis & Clark Expedition


Treaty of Ghent

Hartford Convention



Thomas Jefferson

John Marshall

John Adams

Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions

Jeffersonian Republicans




Who opposed the Federalists during the Washington administration? Why?


How did the Sedition Act reflect the Federalists' position in the debate between order & liberty?


Why did the Jeffersonians win the presidential election of 1800?


Why was the election of 1800 significant in the history of the United States?


Describe the changes that Jefferson tried to make in the relationship between government and the people?


How was Alexander Hamilton able to change the national debt from a weakness into a strength?


Why was the federal government determined to crush the Whiskey Rebellion?


Summarize the views of the Federalists and Jeffersonian Republicans in the 1790's


How was Jefferson's enforcement of the Embargo Act (1807) similar to Washington's actions against the Whiskey Rebellion?


What was the goal of Gabriel Prosser's Rebellion?


What were the goals of the Lewis and Clark expedition?


What were the causes of the War of 1812?


Why was there a need to compromise over making Missouri a state in 1820?


What issue was left unresolved by the Missouri Compromise?


Today we expect a peaceful transfer of power when Americans vote to change political parties. Why were people unable to make this assumption in the election of 1800?


Chapter 8: sections 1-5

Key Terms/Names

Market Revolution



Free enterprise system


Bank note



Population density




Labor union


Turnerís Rebellion

Nat Turner

McCullough vs. Maryland

Dartmouth College vs. Woodward

Gibbons vs. Ogden

Monroe Doctrine

John Quincy Adams

John C. Calhoun

Henry Clay

Andrew Jackson


Spoils system

Tariff of 1828


Indian Removal Act

Trail of Tears



How did factories change the American economy in the early 1800ís?


How might the increase in the numbers of factory workers affect the demand for manufactured goods?


In what ways did the economy of the North change from 1800-1850?


How and why did the concept of ďgoing to workĒ change in parts of the North?


What benefits did centralized manufacturing offer?


What role did banks play in the economic growth of the early 1800ís?


In what ways did economic change in the North, link people together?


In what ways did it push them apart?


How did cotton growing change the South?


Compare and contrast the economics activities in the North and South.


How did geography cause the North and South to develop different economic systems?


What conditions led to the formation of labor unions?


Why, do you think, did southerners retire from their professions to become plantation owners?


How might this explain the southernersí defense of the slave system?


Why did most slave rebellions fail?


Why did nationalism gain, then lose popularity?


Give examples of nationalism in foreign policy and at home during the early 1820ís.


Why was the election of 1824 controversial?


Compare the views of John Quincy Adams, John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay, and Andrew Jackson.


In what ways did Andrew Jacksonís presidency represent a change from the past?


What issues did Jackson favor?


What issues did he oppose?


Explain Jacksonís response to the nullification crisis and to the rechartering of the national bank.


Chapter 9: sections 2-4

Key Terms/Names

Abolitionist movement


Underground Railroad

Gag rule

William Lloyd Garrison

Frederick Douglas

Sojourner Truth

Catherine Beecher

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Seneca Falls Convention


Declaration of Sentiments

Cult of Domesticity

Irish Potato Famine





What tactics did the abolitionist movement use to battle slavery?


Describe several effects of the abolitionist movement.


How did the role of women change in the mid-1800ís, and in what ways did it not change?


What were the causes and effects of the Seneca Falls convention?


Compare and contrast the views of Catherine Beecher and Elizabeth Cady Stanton regarding women and reform.


How and why did Americans become less united in the 1830ís and 1840ís?


What were the causes and effects of immigration in the 1840ís?


How did the reform movements deepen hostilities between the Northern and Southern sections of the nation?



Chapter 10: sections 1-4

Key Terms/Names

Great Plains










Santa Fe Trail

Texas War for Independence

Stephen Austin

Sam Houston

Santa Anna

Battle of the Alamo

Mountain Man


Oregon Trail

Manifest Destiny


Mexican War

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Gadsen Purchase

California Gold Rush

Boom town

Ghost town

James Polk

John Slidell

Zachary Taylor

John C. Fremont

Wilmot Proviso



How did horses and traders change the way of life of the Plains Indians?


How did the roles of Native American men and women change with the switch from agricultural culture to a nomadic way of life?


What caused the decline of village societies on the Great Plains?


Describe the way of life of the nomadic Plains Indians.


How did the Spanish try to strengthen their hold on California in the late 1700ís?


Why did settlers in Texas want independence from Mexico?


What important changes took place in the areas of California, New Mexico, and Texas during this period?


Name two effects of the increased trade between the United States and northern Mexico.


What caused thousands of Americans to begin migrating to the Oregon Country in the 1840ís?


What action by the United States Congress helped lead to the Mexican War?


How did the war against Mexico help the United States achieve its ďManifest Destiny?Ē


Chapter 11: sections 1-4


Key terms/people


Fugitive Slave Act††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

Missouri Compromise


Compromise of 1850

Kansas-Nebraska Act††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

Popular Sovereignty

Free Soiler††††

Bleeding Kansas

Lecompton Constitution

Henry Clay

John C. Calhoun

Harriet Beecher Stowe

Charles Sumner

Dred Scott

John Brown†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

Abraham Lincoln

Border States

Stephen Douglas†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

Jefferson Davis

Fort Sumter

Lower South††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

Upper South




Some historians who think Northerners & Southerners were fairly similar believe war could have been avoided how?


What did Uncle Tomís Cabin attack?



By 1860, where were the largest cities in the United States located?



How were the North & South different by 1860?



What was the most important difference?



What were the provisions of the Compromise of 1850?


What did the Fugitive Slave Act specify?



How did John C. Calhoun view the North?



Why did the Whig party collapse in the 1850ís?



How did the Kansas-Nebraska Act affect slavery in the new territories?



Who were the main supporters of the republican party?



The Kansas-Nebraska bill gave Kansas voters the right to do what?



How did ďBleeding KansasĒ earned its name?



Who did Preston Brooks use his cane to beat and why?



The decision in the case Scott v. Sanford protected whose rights?



In the 1858 Illinois Senate race, who did Stephen Douglas defeat?



Why did John Brown attack the federal arsenal at Harperís Ferry?



Why did Republicans choose Abraham Lincoln as their candidate?



Why did Southern states began to secede following the election of 1860?



Why did Secessionists believe that they had a right to leave the Union?



Why did the states from the Upper South secede?


Chapter 12: sections 1-4


Key names/terms:

Ulysses S. Grant

Robert E. Lee

Confederate States of America†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

William Tecumseh Sherman


Pickettís Charge††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

Martial Law†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

Thirteenth Amendment†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

Emancipation Proclamation††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

George McClellan

Gettysburg Address††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

Writ of Habeus Corpus

Battle of Manassas/Bull Run

Battle of Antietam

Anaconda Plan

Battle of Gettysburg

Battle of Vicksburg

Battle of Atlanta

Battle of Fredericksburg

Battle of Chancellorsville

Appomattox Court House



At the start of the war, how would the Southís basic strategy be described?



During the Civil War how did Union & Confederate governments try to increase the size of their armies?



During the early part of the war, what was Lincolnís main goal?


What major hardships did the Confederacy face during the war?



How did the Emancipation Proclamation affect African Americans?



How did Lee win a brilliant victory at Chancellorville?



Why did Lee cross into Pennsylvania?



At Gettysburg, where did the Union and Confederate lines position themselves?



When were Confederate forces at Gettysburg blown apart by canister shells?



Describe the geographic characteristics of Vicksburg.



How did Grant finally succeed in taking Vicksburg?



Why were Union victories at Vicksburg and Port Hudson so important?



Describe the war strategies of Grant and Sherman.



How were the battles of the Wilderness, Spotsylvania, and Cold Harbor similar?



What did George McClellan say he would do if he were elected President in 1864?



Lincoln gained much needed voter support in the 1864 election after what happened?



The passage of the 13th Amendment showed that Congress accepted Lincolnís view regarding what?



Why did Sherman treat South Carolina so harshly?



Why did Lee finally surrender to Grant?



What happened at Fordís theater on April 14, 1865?


Chapter 13: sections 1-4

Key names/terms



Andrew Johnson

Lincolnís Reconstruction Plan

Johnsonís Reconstruction Plan

Black Codes

Fourteenth Amendment

Civil Rights


Fifteenth Amendment

Carpet Bagger


Reconstruction Act of 1867
Tenure of Office Act

Edwin Stanton

Blanche K. Bruce


Tenant farming


Solid South

Compromise of 1877



Name 3 major problems the South faced at the end of the Civil War.


How did Johnsonís Reconstruction Plan differ from Lincolnís?


What challenges faced the three groups of southerners after the Civil War?


How did African Americans try to improve their lives after emancipation?


Why was it more difficult for freedmen to exercise their freedom to own land than it was for them to exercise their freedoms to worship or become educated?


Why did Congress take over Reconstruction and what policies did it create?


What were the goals of the 14th and 15th Amendments?


What were the effects of Radical Reconstruction?


How did Republicans gain control of southern governments?


How were Reconstruction legislatures unique in American history?


What effects did Reconstruction have on agriculture and industry in the South?


Describe the sharecropperís cycle of debt.


What were some of the major successes and failures of Reconstruction?


What were the events that led to the Compromise of 1877?


What tactics did some white southerners use to challenge Reconstruction?


When and why did Reconstruction end?